Health and Safety Theories

20th Mar 2018
Health and Safety Risk Management
19th Sep 2018
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Health and Safety Theories

The ABC theory of safety.
A – Attitudes

Employee behavior is arguably one of the greatest determinants in workplace safety, especially as employees interact amid a host of varying safety issues. The human behavior thus plays a huge role to a task performed by an employee. The task can have a negative and a positive impact on connected to the person doing the specified task.

Your work attitude not only affects how well you do your job, but it also affects how safe you are when doing it. Positive people usually perform better in the workplace because they maintain an open mind and consider the outcome of their behavior. Negative people, on the other hand, complain about everything, including having to practice safety. The person with the negative work attitude is less likely to care about the quality of the job she is doing or how she does it. A negative work attitude can lead to unsafe work habits and accidents.

Let’s look at some examples:

Cathy, who's worked at the same automobile assembly plant for the last 15 years, has a part jammed in the press--the antecedent. Instead of going through the proper process to shut down the machine, she decides to quickly reach in and pull it out--the behavior--only to have her arm pinned--the consequence.

Or, let's take Robert, who steps over an extension cord lying on the floor. His co-worker, Brian, who's carrying a ladder, doesn't see the cord and trips only a few minutes later.

B – Behavior

Behavior in the workplace is all about emotions such as aggression, happiness, or depression.

Negative workplace behavior, such as workplace bullying, is an important work‐related psychosocial hazard with the potential to contribute to employee ill health. Two major health issues can be noted; poor mental and cardiovascular health.

For example: If an shop assistant support the system of negative feedback on the business, the negative exposure in the workplace develop a physical disease and psychological illness. The behaviour of the worhkers indicates a poor cardiovascular health, and a significant effect of current exposure on the indicator of mental health problems. Bam! The downhill effect notjust on your business but as well as the workers.

An effective HSE Officer needs the following types of skills:
• Technical support skills – the ability to ensure the product or service are produced without risk
• Human Skills – the ability to work as a leader under groups
• Connectional skills – the ability to see everybody in the HSE cycle and how they are intergraded.

C – Conditions

The condition to follow or consequences are what happen after the behavior – reward or punishment. Past conditions become influencers to future behavior. Most people do not want to suffer the "consequences" of their behavior. When people understand and believe in the potential conditions, behavior starts to change. The motivating conditions are different for people. The impact an injury has on them personally or their family is important. For others, losing their job, or having a consequence directly impact their social life is more important and can lead to behavior change. The point is, we are all motivated differently. So understanding the motivations for safety in our people becomes important for long-term behavior change.

During the project the following condition are followed:
• Conceptual, design, construction, commission, modification and decommissioning phase.
Typical hazards to identify should risk minimize
• Mechanical, electrical, structural, chemical, physical, and biological hazards (stresses)
2. The domino theory of safety

The Heinrich Domino Theory is based on the sequence of events that leads to an incident.
  • The potential injury only occurs as a result of an injury (Final Domino)
  • An accident only happens as result of personal or mechanical hazard
  • Hazards only occur as result of people faults
  • Faults of people are inherited, born bred and educated.
  • Thus by removal of an optical domino caused the effect not to happen. This is done by training the staff and to make them aware of danger in the workplace.
  • 4.Franks Bird’s theory

    Frank Bird Accident Triangle show the relationship between numbers of accidents with different outcomes. Research shows that this relationship forms a triangle, with the most serious outcomes being the least numerous at the top and those with proportionally higher numbers but less serous results forming the base.

    The important message of the accident triangle is that serous outcome accidents tend to happened rarely and randomly. They are notoriously difficult to predict. Near misses/incidents, on the other hand, happen far more frequently. Many near misses will be minor events of little or no consequences; if they happen again there would be no serous outcome. but some near misses will have the potential for very serious injury. These near misses should be thoroughly investigated and preventive measures put in place to avoid the recurrence.

    4.DR William Haddon's Theory

    Energy release theory method is developed by Dr William Haddon to identify or classifying and preventing damage cause by accidents. Accidents are caused by the transfer of energy with such force that body injury and property damage occur. Strategies can interrupt or suppress the chain of accident-causing events. These strategies revolve around (1) control and prevention of buildup of energy that is inherently injurious; (2) creation of an environment that is not conducive to injurious buildup of energy; and (3) production of counteractive measures to injurious buildup of energy.

    The 10 accident prevention strategies of Haddon

    1. Prevent the creation of energy / hazard, thus prevent the formation of potentially harmful energy present in the system.
    Examples restrict access to explosives or ban a product like a bike.
    2. Reduce or limit the quantity of energy formed.
    Example limit pills per container given to patients.
    3. Prevent the release of this energy or hazard.
    Example improves brakes on a car less hazard for failure.
    4. Modify the spatial distribution of energy release starting from its source.
    Health restriction is an example for infected people.
    5. Separate, in space in time, from susceptible structures, live and not alive, the energy that is being liberated.
    For example child restraints on traveling.
    6. Place or insert a material barrier between susceptible structures and energy.
    For example bike helmets, pool covers.
    7. Modify surfaces and basic structures so as to dissipate the energy load.
    An example is protective gear for infected staff.
    8. Increase the resistance of susceptible structures.
    An example is earthquakes, natural disasters.
    9. Reduce losses, detected and evaluate the losses and begin the counter damage caused by environmental hazard or energy.
    Smoke detectors are a basic example here to prevent and expose the hazard.
    10. Stabilize, repair and rehabilitate the injury and losses, aiming for promotion of a return to functional pre-events “status”
    An example is the effective treatment of a patient say with TB, getting treatment and in rehabilitation.